《Asp.Net Core3 + Vue3入坑教程》 - 5..Net Core 3升级成 .Net 5 & JWT


简介

《Asp.Net Core3 + Vue3入坑教程》 此教程适合新手入门或者前后端分离尝试者。可以根据图文一步一步进操作编码也可以选择直接查看源码。每一篇文章都有对应的源码

本文将 .Net Core 3升级成 .Net 5

目录

《Asp.Net Core3 + Vue3入坑教程》系列教程目录

Asp.Net Core后端项目

  1. 后端项目搭建与Swagger配置步骤
  2. 配置CROS策略解决跨域问题
  3. AutoMapper & Restful API & DI
  4. EF Core & Postgresql
  5. (本文).Net Core 3升级成 .Net 5 & JWT
  6. (暂未发表敬请期待...)

Vue3 前端项目

暂未发表敬请期待...

本文简介

本文为《Asp.Net Core3 + Vue3入坑教程》系列教程的后端第五篇 - .Net Core 3升级成 .Net 5 & JWT。上文已经为Simple项目增加了EF Core与Postgresql数据库的连接,本文继续为Simple项目增加JWT(JSON Web Token)的应用,目标是让除了用户请求认证接口之外的其余请求都需要带着JWT!在使用之前先将SKD的版本升级成 .Net 5。

JWT详解参考 https://jwt.io/introduction

把Simple项目从 .Net Core 3升级成 .Net 5 & 使用JWT

.Net Core 3升级成 .Net 5

上官网下载 .Net 5 SDK

https://dotnet.microsoft.com/download/visual-studio-sdks?utm_source=getdotnetsdk&utm_medium=referral

确保VS版本支持 .net 5 SDK(如果是2019的话,升级成最新的即可)

打开项目,右键解决方案,打开项目属性

将目标框架调整成 .NET 5.0

更新Nuget包

项目应用JWT

在ServiceProvider文件夹下新建JWT扩展类

代码如下:


using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.JwtBearer;
using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
using Microsoft.IdentityModel.Tokens;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace Simple_Asp.Net_Core.ServiceProvider
{
    public static class JWT
    {
        public static void AddJWT(this IServiceCollection services)
        {
            services.AddAuthentication(x =>
            {
                x.DefaultAuthenticateScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
                x.DefaultScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
                x.DefaultChallengeScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
            })
           .AddJwtBearer(o =>
           {
               o.RequireHttpsMetadata = false;
               o.Events = new JwtBearerEvents()
               {
                   OnAuthenticationFailed = context =>
                   {
                       //Token expired
                       if (context.Exception.GetType() == typeof(SecurityTokenExpiredException))
                           context.Response.Headers.Add("Token-Expired", "true");

                       return Task.CompletedTask;
                   },
               };

               o.TokenValidationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters
               {
                   // 是否验证失效时间
                   ValidateLifetime = true,
                   ClockSkew = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30),
                   ValidateAudience = true,
                   // 这里采用动态验证的方式,在重新登陆时,刷新token,旧token就强制失效了
                   AudienceValidator = AudienceValidator,
                   // 是否验证Issuer
                   ValidateIssuer = false,
                   // 是否验证SecurityKey
                   ValidateIssuerSigningKey = true,
                   IssuerSigningKey = new SymmetricSecurityKey(Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(Const.SecurityKey))
               };
           });
        }

        private static bool AudienceValidator(IEnumerable<string> audiences, SecurityToken securityToken, TokenValidationParameters validationParameters)
        {
            return Audiences.IsNewestAudience(audiences.FirstOrDefault());
        }
    }
}

在ServiceProvider文件夹下新建新建类Audiences.cs和Const.cs

代码如下:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

namespace Simple_Asp.Net_Core.ServiceProvider
{
    public static class Audiences
    {
        private static IDictionary<string, string> _audiences = new Dictionary<string, string>();

        public static string UpdateAudience(string userNo)
        {
            if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(userNo))
                return string.Empty;

            var audience = $"{userNo}_{DateTime.Now}";
            _audiences[userNo] = audience;

            return audience;
        }

        public static bool IsNewestAudience(string audience)
        {
            if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(audience))
                return false;

            var userName = audience.Split('_')[0];

            if (!_audiences.ContainsKey(userName))
                return false;
            else
                return _audiences[userName] == audience;
        }
    }
}
namespace Simple_Asp.Net_Core.ServiceProvider
{
    internal class Const
    {
        public const string Domain = "http://localhost:81";
        public const string SecurityKey = "Simple_Asp.Net_Core";
    }
}

在类中直接引入nuget包,或者使用Nuget包管理工具引入Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.JwtBearer

Startup.cs 配置调整,增加认证与授权配置

代码如下:

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;
using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Hosting;
using Newtonsoft.Json.Serialization;
using Simple_Asp.Net_Core.Data;
using Simple_Asp.Net_Core.ServiceProvider;
using System;

namespace Simple_Asp.Net_Core
{
    public class Startup
    {
        // This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to add services to the container.
        // For more information on how to configure your application, visit https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=398940
        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
        {
            services.AddJWT();

            services.AddDbContext<CommanderContext>(options =>
                options.UseNpgsql("Host=localhost;Database=postgres;Username=postgres;Password=123456"));

            services.AddCORS();
            services.AddMvc();
            services.AddSwagger();

            services.AddAutoMapper(AppDomain.CurrentDomain.GetAssemblies());

            services.AddScoped<ICommanderRepo, SqlCommanderRepo>();

            services.AddControllers().AddNewtonsoftJson(s =>
            {
                s.SerializerSettings.ContractResolver = new CamelCasePropertyNamesContractResolver();
            });
        }

        // This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to configure the HTTP request pipeline.
        public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
        {
            if (env.IsDevelopment())
            {
                app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
                app.UseSwagger();
                app.UseSwaggerUI(c =>
                {
                    c.SwaggerEndpoint("/swagger/v1/swagger.json", "ApiHelp V1");
                });
            }
            app.UseCors("CorsTest");
            app.UseAuthentication();
            app.UseRouting();
            app.UseAuthorization();
            app.UseEndpoints(endpoints => endpoints.MapDefaultControllerRoute());
        }
    }
}

接下来就是应用了

首先我们在 CommandsController 控制器上增加特性 [Authorize]

然后启动项目,可以发现,swagger上发出的请求出现了401错误

401的错误就是没有权限

HTTP401状态详解 https://developer.mozilla.org/zh-CN/docs/Web/HTTP/Status/401

现在需要为swagger的请求增加Token

首先增加JWT获取接口,新建控制器OAuthController.cs

当前模拟用户信息获取与用户信息校验用户校验

Action增加[AllowAnonymous]特性,让此接口可以接收任何的请求

代码如下:

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authorization;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using Microsoft.IdentityModel.Tokens;
using Simple_Asp.Net_Core.Dtos;
using Simple_Asp.Net_Core.Extensions;
using Simple_Asp.Net_Core.ServiceProvider;
using System;
using System.IdentityModel.Tokens.Jwt;
using System.Text;

namespace Simple_Asp.Net_Core.Controllers
{
    [Route("api/[controller]")]
    [ApiController]
    public class OAuthController : ControllerBase
    {
        [HttpPost]
        [AllowAnonymous]
        public IActionResult Authenticate(string name, string password)
        {
            // 此处需补充用户校验与用户具体信息获取...
            
            var user = new UserProviderDto(name, password);
            var tokenHandler = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler();
            var key = Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(Const.SecurityKey);
            var tokenDescriptor = new SecurityTokenDescriptor
            {
                Audience = Audiences.UpdateAudience(user.Name),
                Subject = user.GetClaimsIdentity(),
                Expires = DateTime.UtcNow.AddDays(0.5),
                SigningCredentials = new SigningCredentials(new SymmetricSecurityKey(key), SecurityAlgorithms.HmacSha256Signature)
            };
            var token = tokenHandler.CreateToken(tokenDescriptor);
            var tokenString = tokenHandler.WriteToken(token);
            return Ok(new
            {
                access_token = tokenString
            });
        }
    }
}

在Dto文件夹下增加用户Dto UserProviderDto.cs

代码如下:

namespace Simple_Asp.Net_Core.Dtos
{
    public class UserProviderDto
    {
        public UserProviderDto(string name, string password)
        {
            Name = name;
            Password = password;
        }

        public string ID { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 用户名
        /// </summary>
        public string Name { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 手机号
        /// </summary>
        public string Phone { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 电子邮箱
        /// </summary>
        public string Mail { get; set; }

        public string Password { get; set; }
    }
}

新建 Extensions 文件夹 、 新建ClaimLoginUserExtensions 扩展类

代码如下:


using Newtonsoft.Json;
using Simple_Asp.Net_Core.Dtos;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Security.Claims;

namespace Simple_Asp.Net_Core.Extensions
{
    public static class ClaimLoginUserExtensions
    {
        private const string USER = "User";

        public static ClaimsIdentity GetClaimsIdentity(this UserProviderDto user)
        {
            return new ClaimsIdentity(new Claim[]
            {
                new Claim(USER, JsonConvert.SerializeObject(user))
            });
        }

        public static UserProviderDto GetLoginUser(this IEnumerable<Claim> claims)
        {
            var user = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<UserProviderDto>(claims.Get(USER));

            return user;
        }

        public static string Get(this IEnumerable<Claim> claims, string claimType)
        {
            return claims.Where(v => v.Type == claimType).First().Value;
        }
    }
}

启动项目,调用api/OAuth接口获取Token

得到Token

 "access_token": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJVc2VyIjoie1wiSURcIjpudWxsLFwiTmFtZVwiOlwiYWRtaW5cIixcIlBob25lXCI6bnVsbCxcIk1haWxcIjpudWxsLFwiUGFzc3dvcmRcIjpcIjEyMzQ1NlwifSIsIm5iZiI6MTYxNDIzOTAwNSwiZXhwIjoxNjE0MjgyMjA1LCJpYXQiOjE2MTQyMzkwMDUsImF1ZCI6ImFkbWluXzIwMjEvMi8yNSDmmJ_mnJ_lm5sgMTU6NDM6MjUifQ.yrjK8qX45mNOQ3taecIc-QVaBDlN4QUOdBPRExvpejk"

将Token赋到我们的请求上,在swagger上可以直接配置,点击 Authorize 按钮

将Token附上,注意开头为Bearer (Bearer后面接着一个空格!):

实例如下:

Bearer eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJVc2VyIjoie1wiSURcIjpudWxsLFwiTmFtZVwiOlwiYWRtaW5cIixcIlBob25lXCI6bnVsbCxcIk1haWxcIjpudWxsLFwiUGFzc3dvcmRcIjpcIjEyMzQ1NlwifSIsIm5iZiI6MTYxNDIzOTAwNSwiZXhwIjoxNjE0MjgyMjA1LCJpYXQiOjE2MTQyMzkwMDUsImF1ZCI6ImFkbWluXzIwMjEvMi8yNSDmmJ_mnJ_lm5sgMTU6NDM6MjUifQ.yrjK8qX45mNOQ3taecIc-QVaBDlN4QUOdBPRExvpejk

再点击 Authorize 按钮

调用/api/Commands请求 - 请求成功

代码编写与配置已经全部完成

可以利用JWT在线解析工具(https://jwt.io/#debugger-io) 将前面获取的JWT的信息解析出来

总结

本文为Simple项目增加JWT(JSON Web Token)的应用,除了用户请求认证接口之外的其余请求都需要带着JWT,本文还简单的实现了用户单一登入,扩展类JWT.cs的AudienceValidator方法会判断用户使用的Token是否是最新的,如果用户重复登入则旧的Token会失效!目前只是简单的使用了静态变量来保存Token的信息,可以结合具体情况将Token保存至Redis或者数据库中。
JWT的更多配置可以参考官方API资料 https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/api/microsoft.aspnetcore.authentication.jwtbearer?view=aspnetcore-5.0

GitHub源码

注意:源码调试过程中如果出现xml文件路径错误,需要参照第一章(后端项目搭建与Swagger配置步骤)Swagger配置“配置XML 文档文件”步骤,取消勾选然后再选中 ,将XML路径设置成与你的电脑路径匹配!

https://github.com/Impartsoft/Simple_Asp.Net_Core/tree/master/Simple_Asp.Net_Core 5.SDK Update %26 JWT

参考资料

博客JWT(推荐学习) https://www.cnblogs.com/7tiny/archive/2019/06/13/11012035.html

官方资料 https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/api/microsoft.aspnetcore.authentication.jwtbearer?view=aspnetcore-5.0

jwt官方资料 https://jwt.io

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