[源码分析] 消息队列 Kombu 之 启动过程


[源码分析] 消息队列 Kombu 之 启动过程

0x00 摘要

本系列我们介绍消息队列 Kombu。Kombu 的定位是一个兼容 AMQP 协议的消息队列抽象。通过本文,大家可以了解 Kombu 是如何启动,以及如何搭建一个基本的架子。

因为之前有一个综述,所以大家会发现,一些概念讲解文字会同时出现在后续文章和综述之中。

0x01 示例

下面使用如下代码来进行说明。

本示例来自https://liqiang.io/post/kombu-source-code-analysis-part-5系列,特此深表感谢。

def main(arguments):
    hub = Hub()
    exchange = Exchange('asynt_exchange')
    queue = Queue('asynt_queue', exchange, 'asynt_routing_key')

    def send_message(conn):
        producer = Producer(conn)
        producer.publish('hello world', exchange=exchange, routing_key='asynt_routing_key')
        print('message sent')

    def on_message(message):
        print('received: {0!r}'.format(message.body))
        message.ack()
        # hub.stop()  # <-- exit after one message

    conn = Connection('redis://localhost:6379')
    conn.register_with_event_loop(hub)

    def p_message():
        print(' kombu ')

    with Consumer(conn, [queue], on_message=on_message):
        send_message(conn)
        hub.timer.call_repeatedly(3, p_message)
        hub.run_forever()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    sys.exit(main(sys.argv[1:]))

0x02 启动

让我们顺着程序流程看看Kombu都做了些什么,也可以对 Kombu 内部有所了解。

本文关注的重点是:Connection,Channel 和 Hub 是如何联系在一起的

2.1 Hub

在程序开始,我们建立了Hub。

Hub的作用是建立消息Loop,但是此时尚未建立,因此只是一个静态实例。

hub = Hub()

其定义如下:

class Hub:
    """Event loop object.
    Arguments:
        timer (kombu.asynchronous.Timer): Specify custom timer instance.
    """
    def __init__(self, timer=None):
        self.timer = timer if timer is not None else Timer()

        self.readers = {}
        self.writers = {}
        self.on_tick = set()
        self.on_close = set()
        self._ready = set()

        self._running = False
        self._loop = None

        self.consolidate = set()
        self.consolidate_callback = None

        self.propagate_errors = ()
        self._create_poller()

因为此时没有建立loop,所以目前重要的步骤是建立Poll,其Stack如下:

_get_poller, eventio.py:321
poll, eventio.py:328
_create_poller, hub.py:113
__init__, hub.py:96
main, testUb.py:22
<module>, testUb.py:55

在eventio.py中有如下,我们可以看到Kombu可以使用多种模型来进行内核消息处理:

def _get_poller():
    if detect_environment() != 'default':
        # greenlet
        return _select
    elif epoll:
        # Py2.6+ Linux
        return _epoll
    elif kqueue and 'netbsd' in sys.platform:
        return _kqueue
    elif xpoll:
        return _poll
    else:
        return _select

因为本机情况,这里选择的是:_poll。

+------------------+
| Hub              |
|                  |
|                  |            +-------------+
|      poller +---------------> | _poll       |
|                  |            |             |         +-------+
|                  |            |    _poller+---------> |  poll |
+------------------+            |             |         +-------+
                                +-------------+

2.2 Exchange与Queue

其次建立了Exchange与Queue。

  • Exchange:交换机,消息发送者将消息发至 Exchange,Exchange 负责将消息分发至 Queue;
  • Queue:消息队列,存储着即将被应用消费掉的消息,Exchange 负责将消息分发 Queue,消费者从 Queue 接收消息;

因为此时也没有具体消息,所以我们暂且无法探究Exchange机制。

exchange = Exchange('asynt')
queue = Queue('asynt', exchange, 'asynt')

此时将把Exchange与Queue联系起来。图示如下:

+------------------+
| Hub              |
|                  |
|                  |            +-------------+
|      poller +---------------> | _poll       |
|                  |            |             |         +-------+
|                  |            |    _poller+---------> |  poll |
+------------------+            |             |         +-------+
                                +-------------+


+----------------+         +-------------------+
| Exchange       |         | Queue             |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
|     channel    | <------------+ exchange     |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
+----------------+         +-------------------+

2.3 Connection

第三步就是建立Connection。

Connection是对 MQ 连接的抽象,一个 Connection 就对应一个 MQ 的连接。现在就是对'redis://localhost:6379'连接进行抽象。

conn = Connection('redis://localhost:6379')

2.3.1 定义

由定义注释可知,Connection是到broker的连接。从具体代码可以看出,Connection更接近是一个逻辑概念,具体功能都委托给别人完成。

消息从来不直接发送给队列,甚至 Producers 都可能不知道队列的存在。 Producer如何才能将消息发送给Consumer呢?这中间需要经过 Message Broker 的处理和传递。

AMQP中,承担 Message Broker 功能的就是 AMQP Server。也正是从这个角度讲,AMQP 的 Producer 和Consumer 都是 AMQP Client。

在Kombu 体系中,用 transport 对所有的 broker 进行了抽象,为不同的 broker 提供了一致的解决方案。通过Kombu,开发者可以根据实际需求灵活的选择或更换broker

Connection主要成员变量是,但是此时没有赋值:

  • _connection:
  • _transport:就是上面提到的对 broker 的抽象。
  • cycle:与broker交互的调度策略。
  • failover_strategy:在连接失效时,选取其他hosts的策略。
  • heartbeat:用来实施心跳。

代码如下:

class Connection:
    """A connection to the broker"""

    port = None
    virtual_host = '/'
    connect_timeout = 5

    _connection = None
    _default_channel = None
    _transport = None
    uri_prefix = None

    #: The cache of declared entities is per connection,
    #: in case the server loses data.
    declared_entities = None

    #: Iterator returning the next broker URL to try in the event
    #: of connection failure (initialized by :attr:`failover_strategy`).
    cycle = None

    #: Additional transport specific options,
    #: passed on to the transport instance.
    transport_options = None

    #: Strategy used to select new hosts when reconnecting after connection
    #: failure.  One of "round-robin", "shuffle" or any custom iterator
    #: constantly yielding new URLs to try.
    failover_strategy = 'round-robin'

    #: Heartbeat value, currently only supported by the py-amqp transport.
    heartbeat = None

    resolve_aliases = resolve_aliases
    failover_strategies = failover_strategies

    hostname = userid = password = ssl = login_method = None

2.3.2 init 与 transport

Connection内部主要任务是建立了transport。

Stack大致如下:

Transport, redis.py:1039
<module>, redis.py:1031
import_module, __init__.py:126
symbol_by_name, imports.py:56
resolve_transport, __init__.py:70
get_transport_cls, __init__.py:85
__init__, connection.py:183
main, testUb.py:40
<module>, testUb.py:55

2.4 Transport

在Kombu体系中,用transport对所有的broker进行了抽象,为不同的broker提供了一致的解决方案。通过Kombu,开发者可以根据实际需求灵活的选择或更换broker。

Transport:真实的 MQ 连接,也是真正连接到 MQ(redis/rabbitmq) 的实例。就是存储和发送消息的实体,用来区分底层消息队列是用amqp、Redis还是其它实现的。

Transport负责具体操作,但是很多操作移交给 loop 与 MultiChannelPoller 进行。

2.4.1 定义

其主要成员变量为:

  • 本transport的驱动类型,名字;
  • 对应的 Channel;
  • cycle:MultiChannelPoller,具体下文提到;

定义如下:

class Transport(virtual.Transport):
    """Redis Transport."""

    Channel = Channel

    polling_interval = None  # disable sleep between unsuccessful polls.
    default_port = DEFAULT_PORT
    driver_type = 'redis'
    driver_name = 'redis'

    implements = virtual.Transport.implements.extend(
        asynchronous=True,
        exchange_type=frozenset(['direct', 'topic', 'fanout'])
    )

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        if redis is None:
            raise ImportError('Missing redis library (pip install redis)')
        super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)

        # Get redis-py exceptions.
        self.connection_errors, self.channel_errors = self._get_errors()
        # All channels share the same poller.
        self.cycle = MultiChannelPoller()

2.4.2 移交操作

Transport负责具体操作,但是很多操作移交给 loop 与 MultiChannelPoller 进行,具体从下面代码可见。

def register_with_event_loop(self, connection, loop):
    cycle = self.cycle
    cycle.on_poll_init(loop.poller)
    cycle_poll_start = cycle.on_poll_start
    add_reader = loop.add_reader
    on_readable = self.on_readable

    def _on_disconnect(connection):
        if connection._sock:
            loop.remove(connection._sock)
    cycle._on_connection_disconnect = _on_disconnect

    def on_poll_start():
        cycle_poll_start()
        [add_reader(fd, on_readable, fd) for fd in cycle.fds]
        
    loop.on_tick.add(on_poll_start)
    loop.call_repeatedly(10, cycle.maybe_restore_messages)
    
    health_check_interval = connection.client.transport_options.get(
        'health_check_interval',
        DEFAULT_HEALTH_CHECK_INTERVAL
    )
    
    loop.call_repeatedly(
        health_check_interval,
        cycle.maybe_check_subclient_health
    )

其中重点是MultiChannelPoller。一个Connection有一个Transport, 一个Transport有一个MultiChannelPoller,对poll操作都是由MultiChannelPoller完成,redis操作由channel完成

2.4.3 MultiChannelPoller

定义如下,可以理解为执行engine,主要作用是:

  • 收集channel;
  • 建立fd到channel的映射;
  • 建立channel到socks的映射;
  • 使用poll;
class MultiChannelPoller:
    """Async I/O poller for Redis transport."""

    eventflags = READ | ERR

    def __init__(self):
        # active channels
        self._channels = set()
        # file descriptor -> channel map.
        self._fd_to_chan = {}
        # channel -> socket map
        self._chan_to_sock = {}
        # poll implementation (epoll/kqueue/select)
        self.poller = poll()
        # one-shot callbacks called after reading from socket.
        self.after_read = set()

2.4.4 获取

Transport是预先生成的,若需要,则依据名字取得。

TRANSPORT_ALIASES = {
    'amqp': 'kombu.transport.pyamqp:Transport',
    'amqps': 'kombu.transport.pyamqp:SSLTransport',
    'pyamqp': 'kombu.transport.pyamqp:Transport',
    'librabbitmq': 'kombu.transport.librabbitmq:Transport',
    'memory': 'kombu.transport.memory:Transport',
    'redis': 'kombu.transport.redis:Transport',
	......
    'pyro': 'kombu.transport.pyro:Transport'
}

_transport_cache = {}


def resolve_transport(transport=None):
    """Get transport by name. """
    if isinstance(transport, str):
        try:
            transport = TRANSPORT_ALIASES[transport]
        except KeyError:
            if '.' not in transport and ':' not in transport:
                from kombu.utils.text import fmatch_best
                alt = fmatch_best(transport, TRANSPORT_ALIASES)
        else:
            if callable(transport):
                transport = transport()
        return symbol_by_name(transport)
    return transport

def get_transport_cls(transport=None):
    """Get transport class by name.
    """
    if transport not in _transport_cache:
        _transport_cache[transport] = resolve_transport(transport)
    return _transport_cache[transport]

此时Connection数据如下,注意其部分成员变量尚且没有意义:

conn = {Connection} <Connection: redis://localhost:6379// at 0x7faa910cbd68>
 alt = {list: 0} []
 connect_timeout = {int} 5
 connection = {Transport} <kombu.transport.redis.Transport object at 0x7faa91277710>
 cycle = {NoneType} None
 declared_entities = {set: 0} set()
 default_channel = {Channel} <kombu.transport.redis.Channel object at 0x7faa912700b8>
 failover_strategies = {dict: 2} {'round-robin': <class 'itertools.cycle'>, 'shuffle': <function shufflecycle at 0x7faa9109a0d0>}
 failover_strategy = {type} <class 'itertools.cycle'>
 heartbeat = {int} 0
 host = {str} 'localhost:6379'
 hostname = {str} 'localhost'
 manager = {Management} <kombu.transport.virtual.base.Management object at 0x7faa91270160>
 port = {int} 6379
 recoverable_channel_errors = {tuple: 0} ()
 resolve_aliases = {dict: 2} {'pyamqp': 'amqp', 'librabbitmq': 'amqp'}
 transport = {Transport} <kombu.transport.redis.Transport object at 0x7faa91277710>
 transport_cls = {str} 'redis'
 uri_prefix = {NoneType} None
 userid = {NoneType} None
 virtual_host = {str} '/'

至此,Kombu的基本就建立完成,但是彼此之间没有建立逻辑联系

所以此时示例如下,注意此时三者没有联系:

+-------------------+       +---------------------+       +--------------------+
| Connection        |       | redis.Transport     |       | MultiChannelPoller |
|                   |       |                     |       |                    |
|                   |       |                     |       |     _channels      |
|                   |       |        cycle +------------> |     _fd_to_chan    |
|     transport +---------> |                     |       |     _chan_to_sock  |
|                   |       |                     |       |     poller         |
+-------------------+       +---------------------+       |     after_read     |
                                                          |                    |
                                                          +--------------------+
+------------------+
| Hub              |
|                  |
|                  |            +-------------+
|      poller +---------------> | _poll       |
|                  |            |             |         +-------+
|                  |            |    _poller+---------> |  poll |
+------------------+            |             |         +-------+
                                +-------------+
+----------------+         +-------------------+
| Exchange       |         | Queue             |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
|     channel    | <------------+ exchange     |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
+----------------+         +-------------------+

0x03 Connection注册hub

之前我们提到,基本架子已经建立起来,但是各个模块之间彼此没有联系,下面我们就看看如何建立联系

示例代码来到:

conn.register_with_event_loop(hub)

这里进行了注册,此时作用是把hub与Connection联系起来。随之调用到:

def register_with_event_loop(self, loop):
    self.transport.register_with_event_loop(self.connection, loop)

进而调用到transport类:<kombu.transport.redis.Transport object at 0x7fd23e962dd8>

具体代码如下:

def register_with_event_loop(self, connection, loop):
    cycle = self.cycle
    cycle.on_poll_init(loop.poller)# 这里建立联系,loop就是hub
    cycle_poll_start = cycle.on_poll_start
    add_reader = loop.add_reader
    on_readable = self.on_readable

    def _on_disconnect(connection):
        if connection._sock:
            loop.remove(connection._sock)
    cycle._on_connection_disconnect = _on_disconnect

    def on_poll_start():
        cycle_poll_start()
        [add_reader(fd, on_readable, fd) for fd in cycle.fds]
        
    loop.on_tick.add(on_poll_start)
    loop.call_repeatedly(10, cycle.maybe_restore_messages)
    
    health_check_interval = connection.client.transport_options.get(
        'health_check_interval',
        DEFAULT_HEALTH_CHECK_INTERVAL
    )
    
    loop.call_repeatedly(
        health_check_interval,
        cycle.maybe_check_subclient_health
    )

3.1 建立Channel

注册最初是建立Channel。这里有一个连接的动作,就是在这里,建立了Channel。

@property
def connection(self):
    """The underlying connection object"""
    if not self._closed:
        if not self.connected:
            return self._ensure_connection(
                max_retries=1, reraise_as_library_errors=False
            )
        return self._connection

具体建立是在 base.py 中完成,这是 Transport 基类。Stack 如下:

create_channel, base.py:920
establish_connection, base.py:938
_establish_connection, connection.py:801
_connection_factory, connection.py:866
retry_over_time, functional.py:325
_ensure_connection, connection.py:439
connection, connection.py:859
register_with_event_loop, connection.py:266
main, testUb.py:41
<module>, testUb.py:55

3.2 Channel

Channel:与AMQP中概念类似,可以理解成共享一个Connection的多个轻量化连接。就是真正的连接

可以认为是 redis 操作和连接的封装。每个 Channel 都可以与 redis 建立一个连接,在此连接之上对 redis 进行操作,每个连接都有一个 socket,每个 socket 都有一个 file,从这个 file 可以进行 poll

为了更好的说明,我们提前给出这个通讯流程大约如下:

            +---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
            |                                     +--------------+                                   6                       parse_response         |
            |                                +--> | Linux Kernel | +---+                                                                            |
            |                                |    +--------------+     |                                                                            |
            |                                |                         |                                                                            |
            |                                |                         |  event                                                                     |
            |                                |  1                      |                                                                            |
            |                                |                         |  2                                                                         |
            |                                |                         |                                                                            |
    +-------+---+    socket                  +                         |                                                                            |
    |   redis   | <------------> port +-->  fd +--->+                  v                                                                            |
    |           |                                   |           +------+--------+                                                                   |
    |           |    socket                         |           |  Hub          |                                                                   |
    |           | <------------> port +-->  fd +--->----------> |               |                                                                   |
    | port=6379 |                                   |           |               |                                                                   |
    |           |    socket                         |           |     readers +----->  Transport.on_readable                                        |
    |           | <------------> port +-->  fd +--->+           |               |                     +                                             |
    +-----------+                                               +---------------+                     |                                             |
                                                                                                      |                                             |
                                                        3                                             |                                             |
             +----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+                                             |
             |                                                                                                                                      v
             |                                                                                                                                                  _receive_callback
             |                                                                                                                            5    +-------------+                      +-----------+
+------------+------+                     +-------------------------+                                    'BRPOP' = Channel._brpop_read +-----> | Channel     | +------------------> | Consumer  |
|       Transport   |                     |  MultiChannelPoller     |      +------>  channel . handlers  'LISTEN' = Channel._receive           +-------------+                      +---+-------+
|                   |                     |                         |      |                                                                                           8                |
|                   | on_readable(fileno) |                         |      |                                                                         ^                                  |
|           cycle +---------------------> |          _fd_to_chan +---------------->  channel . handlers  'BRPOP' = Channel._brpop_read               |                                  |
|                   |        4            |                         |      |                             'LISTEN' = Channel._receive                 |                                  |
|  _callbacks[queue]|                     |                         |      |                                                                         |                            on_m  |  9
|          +        |                     +-------------------------+      +------>  channel . handlers  'BRPOP' = Channel._brpop_read               |                                  |
+-------------------+                                                                                    'LISTEN' = Channel._receive                 |                                  |
           |                                                                                                                                         |                                  v
           |                                                7           _callback                                                                    |
           +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+                            User Function

手机上如下:

3.2.1 定义

Channel 主要成员是:

  • async_pool :redis异步连接池;
  • pool :redis连接池;
  • channel_id :Channel ID;
  • client :就是StrictRedis之类的driver;
  • connection :对应的Transport;
  • cycle = {FairCycle} <FairCycle: 0/0 []>
  • queue_order_strategy :获取queue的策略;
  • state :BrokerState状态;
  • subclient :PubSub所用的client;
    keyprefix_queue = '{p}_kombu.binding.%s'.format(p=KEY_PREFIX) :bing用到的key;

比如_get_client可以看出来client。

def _get_client(self):
    if redis.VERSION < (3, 2, 0):
        raise VersionMismatch(
            'Redis transport requires redis-py versions 3.2.0 or later. '
            'You have {0.__version__}'.format(redis))
    return redis.StrictRedis

简化版定义如下:

class Channel(virtual.Channel):
    """Redis Channel."""

    QoS = QoS

    _client = None
    _subclient = None
    keyprefix_queue = '{p}_kombu.binding.%s'.format(p=KEY_PREFIX)
    keyprefix_fanout = '/{db}.'
    sep = '\x06\x16'
    _fanout_queues = {}
    unacked_key = '{p}unacked'.format(p=KEY_PREFIX)
    unacked_index_key = '{p}unacked_index'.format(p=KEY_PREFIX)
    unacked_mutex_key = '{p}unacked_mutex'.format(p=KEY_PREFIX)
    unacked_mutex_expire = 300  # 5 minutes
    unacked_restore_limit = None
    visibility_timeout = 3600   # 1 hour
    max_connections = 10
    queue_order_strategy = 'round_robin'

    _async_pool = None
    _pool = None

    from_transport_options = (
        virtual.Channel.from_transport_options +
        ('sep',
         'ack_emulation',
         'unacked_key',
		 ......
         'max_connections',
         'health_check_interval',
         'retry_on_timeout',
         'priority_steps')  # <-- do not add comma here!
    )

    connection_class = redis.Connection if redis else None

3.2.2 基类

基类定义如下:

class Channel(AbstractChannel, base.StdChannel):
    """Virtual channel.

    Arguments:
        connection (ConnectionT): The transport instance this
            channel is part of.
    """

    #: message class used.
    Message = Message

    #: QoS class used.
    QoS = QoS

    #: flag to restore unacked messages when channel
    #: goes out of scope.
    do_restore = True

    #: mapping of exchange types and corresponding classes.
    exchange_types = dict(STANDARD_EXCHANGE_TYPES)

    #: flag set if the channel supports fanout exchanges.
    supports_fanout = False

    #: Binary <-> ASCII codecs.
    codecs = {'base64': Base64()}

    #: Default body encoding.
    #: NOTE: ``transport_options['body_encoding']`` will override this value.
    body_encoding = 'base64'

    #: counter used to generate delivery tags for this channel.
    _delivery_tags = count(1)

    #: Optional queue where messages with no route is delivered.
    #: Set by ``transport_options['deadletter_queue']``.
    deadletter_queue = None

    # List of options to transfer from :attr:`transport_options`.
    from_transport_options = ('body_encoding', 'deadletter_queue')

    # Priority defaults
    default_priority = 0
    min_priority = 0
    max_priority = 9

最终具体举例如下:

self = {Channel} <kombu.transport.redis.Channel object at 0x7fe61aa88cc0>
 Client = {type} <class 'redis.client.Redis'>
 Message = {type} <class 'kombu.transport.virtual.base.Message'>
 QoS = {type} <class 'kombu.transport.redis.QoS'>
 active_fanout_queues = {set: 0} set()
 active_queues = {set: 0} set()
 async_pool = {ConnectionPool} ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379,db=0>>
 auto_delete_queues = {set: 0} set()
 channel_id = {int} 1
 client = {Redis} Redis<ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379,db=0>>>
 codecs = {dict: 1} {'base64': <kombu.transport.virtual.base.Base64 object at 0x7fe61a987668>}
 connection = {Transport} <kombu.transport.redis.Transport object at 0x7fe61aa399b0>
 connection_class = {type} <class 'redis.connection.Connection'>
 cycle = {FairCycle} <FairCycle: 0/0 []>
 deadletter_queue = {NoneType} None
 exchange_types = {dict: 3} {'direct': <kombu.transport.virtual.exchange.DirectExchange object at 0x7fe61aa53588>, 'topic': <kombu.transport.virtual.exchange.TopicExchange object at 0x7fe61aa53550>, 
 handlers = {dict: 2} {'BRPOP': <bound method Channel._brpop_read of <kombu.transport.redis.Channel object at 0x7fe61aa88cc0>>, 'LISTEN': <bound method Channel._receive of <kombu.transport.redis.Channel object at 0x7fe61aa88cc0>>}
 pool = {ConnectionPool} ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379,db=0>>
 qos = {QoS} <kombu.transport.redis.QoS object at 0x7fe61aa88e48>
 queue_order_strategy = {str} 'round_robin'
 state = {BrokerState} <kombu.transport.virtual.base.BrokerState object at 0x7fe61a987748>
 subclient = {PubSub} <redis.client.PubSub object at 0x7fe61aa39cc0>

3.2.3 redis消息回调函数

关于上面成员变量,这里需要说明的是

 handlers = {dict: 2} 
  {
    'BRPOP': <bound method Channel._brpop_read of <kombu.transport.redis.Channel object at 0x7fe61aa88cc0>>, 
    'LISTEN': <bound method Channel._receive of <kombu.transport.redis.Channel object at 0x7fe61aa88cc0>>
  }

这是redis有消息时的回调函数,即:

  • BPROP 有消息时候,调用 Channel._brpop_read;
  • LISTEN 有消息时候,调用 Channel._receive;

3.2.4 Redis 直接相关的主要成员

与Redis 直接相关的成员定义在:redis/client.py。

与 Redis 直接相关的主要成员是如下,会利用如下变量进行具体 redis操作:

  • async_pool :redis异步连接池;
  • pool :redis连接池;
  • client :就是StrictRedis之类的driver;
  • subclient :PubSub所用的client;

分别对应如下类型:

channel = {Channel} <kombu.transport.redis.Channel object at 0x7fabeea23b00>
 Client = {type} <class 'redis.client.Redis'>
 async_pool = {ConnectionPool} ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379,db=0>>
 client = {Redis} Redis<ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379,db=0>>>
 connection = {Transport} <kombu.transport.redis.Transport object at 0x7fabeea23940>
 connection_class = {type} <class 'redis.connection.Connection'>
 connection_class_ssl = {type} <class 'redis.connection.SSLConnection'>
 pool = {ConnectionPool} ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379,db=0>>
 subclient = {PubSub} <redis.client.PubSub object at 0x7fabeea97198>

具体代码如下:

def _create_client(self, asynchronous=False):
    if asynchronous:
        return self.Client(connection_pool=self.async_pool)
    return self.Client(connection_pool=self.pool)

def _get_pool(self, asynchronous=False):
    params = self._connparams(asynchronous=asynchronous)
    self.keyprefix_fanout = self.keyprefix_fanout.format(db=params['db'])
    return redis.ConnectionPool(**params)

def _get_client(self):
    if redis.VERSION < (3, 2, 0):
        raise VersionMismatch(
            'Redis transport requires redis-py versions 3.2.0 or later. '
            'You have {0.__version__}'.format(redis))
    return redis.StrictRedis

@property
def pool(self):
    if self._pool is None:
        self._pool = self._get_pool()
    return self._pool

@property
def async_pool(self):
    if self._async_pool is None:
        self._async_pool = self._get_pool(asynchronous=True)
    return self._async_pool

@cached_property
def client(self):
    """Client used to publish messages, BRPOP etc."""
    return self._create_client(asynchronous=True)

@cached_property
def subclient(self):
    """Pub/Sub connection used to consume fanout queues."""
    client = self._create_client(asynchronous=True)
    return client.pubsub()

因为添加了Channel,所以此时如下:

+-----------------+
| Channel         |
|                 |      +-----------------------------------------------------------+
|    client  +---------> | Redis<ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379> |
|                 |      +-----------------------------------------------------------+
|                 |
|                 |      +---------------------------------------------------+-+
|    pool  +---------->  |ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379 > |
|                 |      +---------------------------------------------------+-+
|                 |
|                 |
|                 |
|    connection   |
|                 |
+-----------------+

+-------------------+       +---------------------+       +--------------------+
| Connection        |       | redis.Transport     |       | MultiChannelPoller |
|                   |       |                     |       |                    |
|                   |       |                     |       |     _channels      |
|                   |       |        cycle +------------> |     _fd_to_chan    |
|     transport +---------> |                     |       |     _chan_to_sock  |
|                   |       |                     |       |     poller         |
+-------------------+       +---------------------+       |     after_read     |
                                                          |                    |
+------------------+                                      +--------------------+
| Hub              |
|                  |
|                  |            +-------------+
|      poller +---------------> | _poll       |
|                  |            |             |         +-------+
|                  |            |    _poller+---------> |  poll |
+------------------+            |             |         +-------+
                                +-------------+
+----------------+         +-------------------+
| Exchange       |         | Queue             |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
|     channel    | <------------+ exchange     |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
+----------------+         +-------------------+

3.3 channel 与 Connection 联系

讲到这里,基本道理大家都懂,但是具体两者之间如何联系,我们需要再剖析下。

3.3.1 从Connection得到channel

在Connection定义中有如下,原来 Connection 是通过 transport 来得到 channel:

def channel(self):
    """Create and return a new channel."""
    self._debug('create channel')
    chan = self.transport.create_channel(self.connection)
    return chan

3.3.2 Transport具体创建

在Transport之中有:

def create_channel(self, connection):
    try:
        return self._avail_channels.pop()
    except IndexError:
        channel = self.Channel(connection)
        self.channels.append(channel)
        return channel

原来在 Transport 有两个channels 列表:

self._avail_channels
self.channels

如果_avail_channels 有内容则直接获取,否则生成一个新的Channel。

在真正连接时候,会调用 establish_connection 放入self._avail_channels。

def establish_connection(self):
    # creates channel to verify connection.
    # this channel is then used as the next requested channel.
    # (returned by ``create_channel``).
    self._avail_channels.append(self.create_channel(self))
    return self     # for drain events

其堆栈如下:

__init__, redis.py:557
create_channel, base.py:921
establish_connection, base.py:939
_establish_connection, connection.py:801
_connection_factory, connection.py:866
retry_over_time, functional.py:313
_ensure_connection, connection.py:439
connection, connection.py:859
channel, connection.py:283
<module>, node.py:11

3.3.3 建立联系

在init中有:

def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
    super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)

    if not self.ack_emulation:  # disable visibility timeout
        self.QoS = virtual.QoS

    self._queue_cycle = cycle_by_name(self.queue_order_strategy)()
    self.Client = self._get_client()
    self.ResponseError = self._get_response_error()
    self.active_fanout_queues = set()
    self.auto_delete_queues = set()
    self._fanout_to_queue = {}
    self.handlers = {'BRPOP': self._brpop_read, 'LISTEN': self._receive}
 
    ......

    self.connection.cycle.add(self)  # add to channel poller.

    if register_after_fork is not None:
        register_after_fork(self, _after_fork_cleanup_channel)

重点是:

self.connection.cycle.add(self)  # add to channel poller.

这就是把 Channel与Transport 中的 poller 联系起来,这样Transport可以利用Channel去与真实的redis进行交互

堆栈如下:

add, redis.py:277
__init__, redis.py:531
create_channel, base.py:920
establish_connection, base.py:938
_establish_connection, connection.py:801
_connection_factory, connection.py:866
retry_over_time, functional.py:325
_ensure_connection, connection.py:439
connection, connection.py:859
register_with_event_loop, connection.py:266
main, testUb.py:41

因为已经联系起来,所以此时如下:

+-----------------+
| Channel         |
|                 |      +-----------------------------------------------------------+
|    client  +---------> | Redis<ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379> |
|                 |      +-----------------------------------------------------------+
|                 |
|                 |      +---------------------------------------------------+-+
|    pool  +---------->  |ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379 > |
|                 |      +---------------------------------------------------+-+
|                 |
|                 |   <------------------------------------------------------------+
|                 |                                                                |
|    connection +---------------+                                                  |
|                 |             |                                                  |
+-----------------+             |                                                  |
                                v                                                  |
+-------------------+       +---+-----------------+       +--------------------+   |
| Connection        |       | redis.Transport     |       | MultiChannelPoller |   |
|                   |       |                     |       |                    |   |
|                   |       |                     |       |     _channels +--------+
|                   |       |        cycle +------------> |     _fd_to_chan    |
|     transport +---------> |                     |       |     _chan_to_sock  |
|                   |       |                     |       |     poller         |
+-------------------+       +---------------------+       |     after_read     |
                                                          |                    |
+------------------+                                      +--------------------+
| Hub              |
|                  |
|                  |            +-------------+
|      poller +---------------> | _poll       |
|                  |            |             |         +-------+
|                  |            |    _poller+---------> |  poll |
+------------------+            |             |         +-------+
                                +-------------+
+----------------+         +-------------------+
| Exchange       |         | Queue             |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
|     channel    | <------------+ exchange     |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
+----------------+         +-------------------+

3.3 Transport 与 Hub 联系

on_poll_init 这里就是把 kombu.transport.redis.Transport 与 Hub 联系起来。

self.poller = poller把Transport与Hub的poll联系起来。这样 Transport 就可以利用 poll。

def on_poll_init(self, poller):
    self.poller = poller
    for channel in self._channels:
        return channel.qos.restore_visible(
            num=channel.unacked_restore_limit,
        )

此时变量如下:

poller = {_poll} <kombu.utils.eventio._poll object at 0x7fb9bcd87240>
self = {MultiChannelPoller} <kombu.transport.redis.MultiChannelPoller object at 0x7fb9bcdd6a90>
 after_read = {set: 0} set()
 eventflags = {int} 25
 fds = {dict: 0} {}
 poller = {_poll} <kombu.utils.eventio._poll object at 0x7fb9bcd87240>

因此,我们最终如下:

+-----------------+
| Channel         |
|                 |      +-----------------------------------------------------------+
|    client  +---------> | Redis<ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379> |
|                 |      +-----------------------------------------------------------+
|                 |
|                 |      +---------------------------------------------------+-+
|    pool  +---------->  |ConnectionPool<Connection<host=localhost,port=6379 > |
|                 |      +---------------------------------------------------+-+
|                 |
|                 |   <------------------------------------------------------------+
|                 |                                                                |
|    connection +---------------+                                                  |
|                 |             |                                                  |
+-----------------+             |                                                  |
                                v                                                  |
+-------------------+       +---+-----------------+       +--------------------+   |
| Connection        |       | redis.Transport     |       | MultiChannelPoller |   |
|                   |       |                     |       |                    |   |
|                   |       |                     |       |     _channels +--------+
|                   |       |        cycle +------------> |     _fd_to_chan    |
|     transport +---------> |                     |       |     _chan_to_sock  |
|                   |       |                     |    +<----+  poller         |
+-------------------+       +---------------------+    |  |     after_read     |
                                                       |  |                    |
+------------------+                    +--------------+  +--------------------+
| Hub              |                    |
|                  |                    v
|                  |            +-------+-----+
|      poller +---------------> | _poll       |
|                  |            |             |         +-------+
|                  |            |    _poller+---------> |  poll |
+------------------+            |             |         +-------+
                                +-------------+
+----------------+         +-------------------+
| Exchange       |         | Queue             |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
|     channel    | <------------+ exchange     |
|                |         |                   |
|                |         |                   |
+----------------+         +-------------------+

0x04 总结

具体如图,可以看出来,上面三个基本模块已经联系到了一起。

可以看到,

  • 目前是以Transport为中心,把 Channel代表的真实 redis 与 Hub其中的poll联系起来,但是具体如何使用则尚未得知。
  • 用户是通过Connection来作为API入口,connection可以得到Transport。

既然基本架构已经搭好,所以从下文开始,我们看看 Consumer 是如何运作的。

0xFF 参考

celery 7 优秀开源项目kombu源码分析之registry和entrypoint

(二)放弃pika,选择kombu

kombu消息框架<二>

AMQP中的概念

AMQP的基本概念

深入理解AMQP协议

kombu和消息队列总结

关于epoll版服务器的理解(Python实现)

celery源码解读

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