某SPI设备驱动引起的开关机压力测试死机问题一例


环境

硬件平台:某ARM SoC

软件平台:Linux

问题现象:产品做开关机压力测试,发生死机。

 

分析

用crash工具解析两次死机dump信息,得到死机前的log如下。两次死机的backtrace略有不同,但死机原因类似:最后都是在调用 complete 的过程中访问空指针导致 kernel panic。

log 1:
[    1.092790] c2 Unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at virtual address 00000004
[    1.092796] c2 pgd = c0004000
[    1.092802] c0 [00000004] *pgd=00000000
[    1.092812] c2 Internal error: Oops: 5 [#1] PREEMPT SMP ARM
...
[    1.094412] c0 Backtrace:
[    1.094430] c2 [<c07e971c>] (_raw_spin_lock_irqsave) from [<c006e2a8>] (complete+0x1c/0x4c)
[    1.094446] c2 [<c006e28c>] (complete) from [<c04318d4>] (spi_complete+0x10/0x14)
[    1.094468] c2 [<c04318c4>] (spi_complete) from [<c0432328>] (spi_finalize_current_message+0x228/0x26c)
[    1.094479] c2 [<c0432100>] (spi_finalize_current_message) from [<c04327c8>] (spi_transfer_one_message+0x45c/0x484)
[    1.094503] c2 [<c043236c>] (spi_transfer_one_message) from [<c0432e98>] (__spi_pump_messages+0x6a8/0x6e8)
[    1.094531] c2 [<c04327f0>] (__spi_pump_messages) from [<c04330fc>] (__spi_sync+0x208/0x270)
[    1.094559] c2 [<c0432ef4>] (__spi_sync) from [<c0433178>] (spi_sync+0x14/0x18)
[    1.094586] c2 [<c0433164>] (spi_sync) from [<c0440744>] (dm9051_r_reg+0x4c/0x6c)
[    1.094595] c2 [<c04406f8>] (dm9051_r_reg) from [<c0441e30>] (dm9051_probe+0x6e4/0x82c)
[    1.094605] c2 [<c044174c>] (dm9051_probe) from [<c0431764>] (spi_drv_probe+0x8c/0xa8)

log 2:
[    1.271300] c3 Unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at virtual address 00000004
[    1.271305] c3 pgd = c0004000
[    1.271312] c0 [00000004] *pgd=00000000
[    1.271323] c3 Internal error: Oops: 5 [#1] PREEMPT SMP ARM
...
[    1.414585] c0 Backtrace:
[    1.414603] c3 [<c07e97f4>] (_raw_spin_lock_irqsave) from [<c006e2a8>] (complete+0x1c/0x4c)
[    1.414618] c3 [<c006e28c>] (complete) from [<c0431fb8>] (spi_complete+0x28/0x34)
[    1.414643] c3 [<c0431f90>] (spi_complete) from [<c0432350>] (spi_finalize_current_message+0x230/0x278)
[    1.414666] c3 [<c0432120>] (spi_finalize_current_message) from [<c04327f4>] (spi_transfer_one_message+0x45c/0x484)
[    1.414693] c3 [<c0432398>] (spi_transfer_one_message) from [<c0432ec4>] (__spi_pump_messages+0x6a8/0x6e8)
[    1.414725] c3 [<c043281c>] (__spi_pump_messages) from [<c0432f1c>] (spi_pump_messages+0x18/0x1c)
[    1.414759] c3 [<c0432f04>] (spi_pump_messages) from [<c0042abc>] (kthread_worker_fn+0xc0/0x14c)
[    1.414771] c3 [<c00429fc>] (kthread_worker_fn) from [<c00429e8>] (kthread+0x110/0x124)
[    1.414798] c3 [<c00428d8>] (kthread) from [<c000f208>] (ret_from_fork+0x14/0x2c)

梳理kernel spi驱动代码:drivers/spi/spi.c

 //调用 complete

static void spi_complete(void *arg)
{
	complete(arg);
}

//给 spi_message 的 complete 与 context 成员赋值

static int __spi_sync(struct spi_device *spi, struct spi_message *message,
		      int bus_locked)
{
	DECLARE_COMPLETION_ONSTACK(done);
...
	message->complete = spi_complete;
	message->context = &done;
	message->spi = spi;

	if (status == 0) {
...
			__spi_pump_messages(master, false);
...

		wait_for_completion(&done);
		status = message->status;
	}
	message->context = NULL;
	return status;
}

//回调 spi_message 的 complete 函数,即 spi_complete,传入的参数是 spi_message 的 context,即 __spi_sync 函数里面定义的 completion 变量 “done”。

void spi_finalize_current_message(struct spi_master *master)
{
...
	spin_lock_irqsave(&master->queue_lock, flags);
	mesg = master->cur_msg;
	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&master->queue_lock, flags);

...
	if (mesg->complete)
		mesg->complete(mesg->context);
}

 因此基本可以确定是执行 mesg->complete(mesg->context); 时,传入的参数 mesg->context 为 NULL 导致问题。继续看死机前的部分log:

//cpu2 上发起一次 spi 传输并完成

[    1.271151] c2 70a00000.spi: __spi_sync 
[    1.271172] c2 spi_master spi0: spi_finalize_current_message 
[    1.271180] c2 [spi_complete] 

//cpu2 上再次发起一次 spi 传输并完成

[    1.271192] c2 70a00000.spi: __spi_sync 
[    1.271212] c2 spi_master spi0: spi_finalize_current_message 
[    1.271219] c2 [spi_complete]

//cpu2 上再次发起一次 spi 传输,但在完成前,cpu1 发起了新的 spi 传输

[    1.271227] c2 70a00000.spi: __spi_sync 
[    1.271247] c2 spi_master spi0: spi_finalize_current_message
[    1.271249] c1 70a00000.spi: __spi_sync  //cpu1 发起新的传输
[    1.271261] c2 [spi_complete]
[    1.271281] c1 dm9051_r_reg: spi_sync() failed

//cpu3 上执行传输完成的 completion 时,传入的 mesg->context 为 NULL 导致死机

[    1.271288] c3 spi_master spi0: spi_finalize_current_message 
[    1.271293] c3 [spi_complete]
[    1.271300] c3 Unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at virtual address 00000004

__spi_sync 函数中,有如下语句:

__spi_pump_messages(master, false); // 处理spi message,发起传输
wait_for_completion(&done); // 等待传输完成
message->context = NULL; //将该 spi message 的 context 置为 NULL

也就是说,__spi_sync 等到 completion 后会将本次已传输完成的 spi message 的 context 置为NULL。

如果在cpu1上发起新的传输时,传入的 spi message 变量地址与cpu2上的是同一个,那么cpu1就有可能访问到这个 NULL context。

spi message 变量是dm9051驱动传递下来的,查看dm9051驱动,其调用spi的代码如下,可以看到它使用了全局变量 dm->spi_msg1 来构造 spi message。因此造成了问题。

static u8 dm9051_r_reg(struct dm9051_net *dm, u16 reg_addr)
{
    struct spi_transfer *xfer = &dm->spi_xfer1;
    struct spi_message *msg = &dm->spi_msg1;
    u8 r_cmd[2] = {reg_addr, 0x00};
    u8 r_data[2] = {0x00, 0x00};
    int ret;

    xfer->tx_buf = r_cmd;
    xfer->rx_buf = r_data;
    xfer->len = 2;

    ret = spi_sync(dm->spidev, msg);
    if (ret < 0)
        DM_MSG0("dm9051_r_reg: spi_sync() failed\n");

    return r_data[1];
}

static int dm9051_probe(struct spi_device *spi)
{
...
    spi_message_init(&dm->spi_msg1);
    spi_message_add_tail(&dm->spi_xfer1, &dm->spi_msg1);
...
}

 

解决

仿照 include/linux/spi/spi.h 中 spi_read 和 spi_write 的实现,每次读写前都构造新的 spi message。

static inline int
spi_read(struct spi_device *spi, void *buf, size_t len)
{
	struct spi_transfer	t = {
			.rx_buf		= buf,
			.len		= len,
		};
	struct spi_message	m;

	spi_message_init(&m);
	spi_message_add_tail(&t, &m);
	return spi_sync(spi, &m);
}

 

-------------------------------------------------

作者:bigfish99

博客:https://www.cnblogs.com/bigfish0506/

公众号:大鱼嵌入式

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